Tag Archive for Statistics

FOIMan’s FOI Inbox

FOIMan answers your questions in the latest issue of the Freedom of Information Journal.

I recently put out a call to practitioners for their FOI problems with a view to featuring them (and my solutions) in one of my articles for the Freedom of Information Journal. You can now read the results in what I hope will be the first of a semi-regular feature: FOIMan’s FOI Inbox.

Problems posed in the first of these articles are:

  • when can small numbers be refused as personal data (if you shouted out ‘five or less’ or similar just now, you can do three laps of the sportsfield – rounded up to five, of course – right now…go on, off you go *folds arms, raises eyebrows, P.E. teacher-style*)?
  • do public authorities have to provide an email address to which FOI requests can be addressed?
  • how do you work out whether information in the possession of contractors is held for FOI purposes, especially when many contractual relationships are so complex?

Thanks to Gillian, Sarah and Mark for contributing the questions this time around. If you’re an FOI Officer struggling with any FOI or EIR issues, please do get in touch with myself or the FOI Journal editor and I’ll try to answer your query in print in a future issue.

FOI in English Local Authorities in 2016

FOIMan summarises the results of research into the numbers of FOI requests that local authorities in England received in 2016.

The new s.45 code of practice requires all public authorities to publish data on their FOI performance, but that hasn’t always been required. Outside of central government, the availability of reliable data on FOI request volumes is patchy to say the least.

Local government is reputed to receive the most FOI requests of all public authorities. Between 2005 and 2011, the Constitution Unit at UCL carried out valuable research into FOI in local government, including request volumes. The reports on their research can be found on the UCL website.

Since the 2011 report (on 2010), there hasn’t been any comprehensive data available on FOI volumes in local government in England (to my knowledge). As regular readers will know, I conducted some research into FOI in local government as part of the preparation for my book The Freedom of Information Officer’s Handbook. In Autumn 2017, I wrote to a sample of councils across the country and asked them a number of questions. Amongst those questions I asked for the number of requests received in 2016 and the number of those requests answered in 20 working days.

In my latest article for the Freedom of Information Journal I have reported on the results of these questions, and compared them to UCL’s research to examine the trends in council request volumes. It will come as no surprise to learn that request volumes appear to have continued to rise over that period.

If you want to read more about the outcomes of my research, other aspects (including how requests are managed and how performance is monitored) are explored in detail in The Freedom of Information Officer’s Handbook which will be published at the beginning of January 2019 by Facet Publishing. Details of how to order a copy at a discount can be found at the top of the sidebar opposite.

University FOI Stats 2016

FOIMan reviews JISC’s latest report on FOI in higher education.

There aren’t that many sources of information on FOI performance. Central government of course publishes statistics on its own compliance, but outside of Whitehall, the availability of statistics on how public bodies apply FOI is ironically pretty limited. If you want to know more about sources for FOI statistics, I wrote about it for the FOI Journal last year. One of the sectors that does publish information every year is the higher education sector.

Every year, JISC, the higher education information and research body, conducts a survey of universities on their experiences with FOI, EIR and data protection subject access requests. The data is collated into handy charts which are made available online and can be downloaded in reusable form for further number crunching. It always provides quite a detailed insight into FOI handling and this year’s is no different.

Amongst the highlights of this year’s report:

  • universities received an average of 264 requests (mostly – 232 – FOI requests) in 2016 – after a drop last year, requests were up 10%;
  • 51% of requests were granted in full – 17% were partly fulfilled;
  • only 9% were fully withheld due to exemptions;
  • most requests (27%) were about “student issues”;
  • journalists were the most common type of requester – 23% (though it should be noted that 22% of requesters were not identified);
  • only 4% were not answered within 20 working days;
  • the most time-consuming parts of handling an FOI request were “locating and accessing information”, “reviewing information” and “considering exemptions”.

We have to remember that these figures are self-reported and the survey is voluntary – many universities didn’t report at all. However, what we do have is some very useful data on how FOI is working in these public bodies.

Although JISC introduce the report by commenting that the rise in FOI requests represents a “seven-fold increase” since reporting began in 2005, it should be noted that this started from a very low base. Most local authorities would kill to have FOI request rates as low as 232.

Despite the common complaint about FOI requests from IT companies trying to get hold of procurement intelligence, only 7% of requests are about procurement (though its possible these requests were counted in the 9% of requests about IT provision). Only 13% of requests are recorded as coming from “commercial organisations”.

A note on use of exemptions. There was quite a bit of commentary when the Institute for Government published a report last month suggesting that the government’s stats indicated that government departments were becoming less open as they were using more exemptions, and failing to meet deadlines more often. There’s nothing to suggest this is a problem in Higher Education in JISC’s stats, and in any case I’m not at all sure that you can make that conclusion from raw statistics. After 12 years of FOI, it may just be that government departments have already disclosed all the “low-hanging fruit”, and that what remains now are the difficult cases that are more likely to be refused or take longer to answer. What’s really needed if we want to understand changing attitudes to FOI in public bodies is research involving a qualitative analysis of the types of requests being refused – are they the ones that would have been answered in the early days of FOI? Or are the questions being asked more challenging these days? One for the academics in our higher education institutions. Statistics are helpful, but they only provide part of the picture.

If public authorities want tips on how to improve their performance under FOI, just a reminder that you can join me for one of my training courses on FOI for Act Now Training, starting with an intensive look at the FOI Exemptions on 24 April in London. Details on the Act Now Training website.

Lies, Damn Lies & FOI Statistics

FOIMan looks at the difficulties of monitoring FOI requests and of relying on published FOI statistics.

freedom-of-information-graphic-smallThe report of the Independent FOI Commission published in March recommended, amongst other things, the mandatory publication of FOI statistics by public bodies. The government, whilst ruling out changes to the law to this effect, has indicated that it will include something on this in the revised section 45 Code of Practice (which we’re now told will be issued by the end of 2016).

Most practitioners will know the pleasures and problems involved in collating statistics on FOI performance. In my latest piece for PDP’s Freedom of Information Journal, I discuss the challenges involved in preparing monitoring reports – and why, therefore, researchers need to be wary when reaching conclusions based on them.

2015 UK Government FOI Statistics published

FOIMan highlights the latest annual statistics on government FOI performance.

Whitehall Street SignThe government has published the latest quarterly and annual statistics on FOI performance by central government departments and other monitored bodies covering the whole of the year 2015. This is the first time the annual statistics have been collated and published under the aegis of the Cabinet Office following last year’s reorganisation of information rights responsibilities.

Broadly the annual statistics have the same content as in previous years when the reports were put together by the Ministry of Justice. However, this year’s report features some rather nifty graphics which do help in understanding recent FOI trends in government.

Last year’s report on 2014 showed the first decline in numbers of requests received by government. This year’s report indicates a modest rise of 1% in requests, though the monitored bodies outside central government saw a continued shallow decline. The report speculates that this apparent levelling out of requests may be a result of more proactive publication of data.

Today’s publication of 2015 FOI statistics comes on the same day as a report on international FOI and open data trends concludes that the global situation is “worrying”. FOI Directory provides more detail on the annual Open Data Barometer.

I’ll be looking at the difficulties of reporting and relying on FOI statistics in a forthcoming issue of the Freedom of Information Journal.